Tag Archives: industrial gear box

China best Chinese Manufacturer Hot Sale Helical Gear Box for Industrial Usage worm gearbox backlash

Product Description

Product Description

KPC Series helical gearbox is a new generation product which designed basing on the modular system, It can be connected respectively with motors such as IEC standard motor, brake motor, explosion-proof motor, frequency motor, servo motor and so on. it has 4 types(),power from 0.12kw to 4.0kw, ratio from 3.66 to 58.09, Max torque from 120Nm to 500Nm.It can be connect discretionary(foot or flange) and use multi-mounting positions accordingly. This product is widely used in textile, foodstuff, beverage,tobacco, logistics industrial fields,etc.

        Product Characteristics

  1. Modular construction
  2. High efficiency
  3. Precise grinding, low noise
  4. Compact structural design
  5. Univeral mounting
  6. Aluminium housing, light in weight
  7. Carbonize and grinding hardened gears, durable
  8. Multi-structure, can be combined in different forms to meet various transmission condition

       Installation:
      1.Foot mounted
      2.Output Flange mounted
      3.B14 Flange mounted

      Models:
      1.KPC..P(Foot-mounted): KPC01P,KPC02P,KPC03P,KPC04P
      2.KPCF..P(Output Flange-mounted): KPCF01P,KPCF02P,KPCF03P,KPCF04P
      3.KPCZ..P(B14 Flange-mounted): KPCZ01P,KPCZ02P,KPCZ03P,KPCZ04P

Detailed Photos

Product Parameters

GEARBOX SELECTING TABLES  
KPC01..       n1=1400r/min       120Nm  
n2 M2max Fr2 i Proportion 63B5 71B5/B14 80B5/B14 90B5/B14  
[r/min] [Nm] [N]  
26 120 2600 53.33  160/3          
31 120 2600 45.89  413/9          
35 120 2600 40.10  3248/81          
39 120 2560 35.47  532/15          
49 120 2380 28.50  770/27          
59 120 2230 23.56  212/9          
71 120 2100 19.83  119/6          
78 90 2030 17.86  1357/76          
96 120 1900 14.62  658/45          
101 90 1860 13.80* 69/5          
118 120 1770 11.90  2464/207          
143 120 1660 9.81  1148/117          
153 80 1630 9.17  1219/133          
181 80 1540 7.72  1173/152          
246 70 1390 5.69  1081/190          
302 70 1290 4.63  88/19          
366 70 1210 3.82  943/247          
KPC02..       n1=1400r/min       200Nm  
n2 M2max Fr2 i Proportion 63B5 71B5/B14 80B5/B14 90B5/B14  
[r/min] [Nm] [N]  
26 200 4500 54.00* 54/1          
30 200 4500 46.46* 3717/80          
34 200 4500 40.60* 203/5          
39 200 4270 35.91* 3591/100          
48 200 3970 28.88* 231/8          
59 200 3730 23.85* 477/20          
70 200 3520 20.08* 3213/160          
82 140 3330 17.10  3009/176          
95 200 3180 14.81* 2961/200          
106 140 3060 13.21  2907/220          
116 200 2970 12.05  1386/115          
141 200 2780 9.93  2583/260          
159 120 2670 8.78  2703/308          
189 120 2520 7.39  2601/352          
257 100 2280 5.45  2397/440          
316 100 2120 4.43  102/23          
383 80 1990 3.66  2091/572          
KPC03..       n1=1400r/min         300Nm
n2 M2max Fr2 i Proportion 71B5/B14 80B5/B14 90B5/B14 100B5/B14 112B5/B14
[r/min] [Nm] [N]
24 300 6000 58.09  639/11          
28 300 6000 50.02  2201/44          
32 300 6000 43.75  4331/99          
36 300 6000 38.73  426/11          
40 300 5860 34.62  4189/121          
49 300 5480 28.30  4047/143          
64 280 5571 21.78  1917/88          
81 280 4660 17.33  3621/209          
93 260 4440 15.06  497/33          
113 260 4160 12.37  1633/132          
136 240 3910 10.28  3053/297          
177 180 3590 7.93  1269/160          
222 180 3320 6.31  2397/380          
255 150 3170 5.48  329/60          
311 150 2970 4.50  1081/240          
374 150 2790 3.74  2571/540          
KPC04..       n1=1400r/min       500Nm  
n2 M2max Fr2 i Proportion 80B5/B14 90B5/B14 100B5/B14 112B5/B14  
[r/min] [Nm] [N]
24 500 8000 58.09  639/11          
28 500 8000 50.02  2201/44          
32 500 8000 43.75  4331/99          
36 500 8000 38.73  426/11          
40 500 7950 34.62  4189/121          
49 500 7430 28.30  4047/143          
64 480 6810 21.78  1917/88          
81 480 6310 17.33  3621/209          
93 460 6571 15.06  497/33          
113 460 5640 12.37  1633/132          
136 440 5300 10.28  3053/297          
177 260 4860 7.93  1269/160          
222 260 4510 6.31  2397/380          
255 230 4300 5.48  329/60          
311 230 4030 4.50  1081/240          
374 200 3780 3.74 2571/540          

Outline Dimension:

Company Profile

About our company:
We are a professional reducer manufacturer located in HangZhou, ZHangZhoug province.Our leading products is  full range of RV571-150 worm reducers , also supplied hypoid helical gearbox, PC units, UDL Variators and AC Motors.Products are widely used for applications such as: foodstuffs, ceramics, packing, chemicals, pharmacy, plastics, paper-making, construction machinery, metallurgic mine, environmental protection engineering, and all kinds of automatic lines, and assembly lines.With fast delivery, superior after-sales service, advanced producing facility, our products sell well  both at home and abroad. We have exported our reducers to Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe and Middle East and so on.Our aim is to develop and innovate on basis of high quality, and create a good reputation for reducers.

Packing information:Plastic Bags+Cartons+Wooden Cases , or on request
We participate Germany Hannver Exhibition-ZheJiang PTC Fair-Turkey Win Eurasia

Logistics

We can dispatch goods by sea, by train, by air according to customer instruction

After Sales Service

1.Maintenance Time and Warranty:Within 1 year after receiving goods.
2.Other ServiceIncluding modeling selection guide, installation guide, and problem resolution guide, etc.

FAQ

1.Q:Can you make as per customer drawing?
A: Yes, we offer customized service for customers accordingly. We can use customer’s nameplate for gearboxes.

2.Q:What is your terms of payment ?
   A: 30% deposit before production,balance T/T before delivery.

3.Q:Are you a trading company or manufacturer?
   A:We are a manufacurer with advanced equipment and experienced workers.

4.Q:What’s your production capacity?
   A:8000-9000 PCS/MONTH

5.Q:Free sample is available or not?
   A:Yes, we can supply free sample if customer agree to pay for the courier cost

6.Q:Do you have any certificate?
   A:Yes, we have CE certificate and SGS certificate report.

Contact information:
Ms Lingel Pan
For any questions just feel free ton contact me. Many thanks for your kind attention to our company!

Application: Motor, Machinery, Marine, Agricultural Machinery, Industry
Function: Distribution Power, Change Drive Torque, Change Drive Direction, Speed Changing, Speed Reduction
Layout: Coaxial
Hardness: Hardened Tooth Surface
Installation: Horizontal Type
Step: Double-Step
Samples:
US$ 45/Piece
1 Piece(Min.Order)

|
Request Sample

Customization:
Available

|

worm reducer

Worm reducer gearbox

Worm reducer gearboxes are commonly used to reduce the Agknx produced by a rotating shaft. They can achieve reduction ratios of five to sixty. In contrast, a single-stage hypoid gear can achieve up to a 120:1 reduction ratio. For further reduction, another type of gearing is used. So, a single stage worm reducer gearbox cannot achieve higher ratios than these.

Mechanics

A worm reducer gearbox is an auxiliary mechanical device that uses worms to reduce the size of a rotating shaft. These worms have a range of tooth forms. One form is a line weave twist surface. Another is a trapezoid based on a central cross section. The trapezoid can be perpendicular to the tooth cross section, or it can be normal to the root cross section. Other forms include involute helicoids and convolute worms, which use a straight line intersecting the involute generating line.
Worm gears are lubricated with a special lubricant. Because worm gears are complex, it’s important to use the correct lubricant. Worm gear manufacturers provide approved lubricants for their gears. Using unapproved gear oil can damage your reducer gearbox’s efficiency. The right lubricant depends on several factors, including load, speed, duty cycle, and expected operating temperatures.
The efficiency of a worm gear reducer gearbox depends on several factors, including losses at gear mesh, losses in the bearings, and windage in the oil seal lip. In addition, the worm gear reducer gearbox’s efficiency varies with ambient temperature and operating temperature. The worm gear reducer gearbox’s efficiency can also vary with the ratio of the load. Moreover, worm gear reducer gearboxes are subject to break-in.
Worm gear reducer gearboxes are used in many different applications. They are typically used in small electric motors, but they’re also used in conveyor systems, presses, elevators, and mining applications. Worm gears are also commonly found in stringed musical instruments.
Worm gears have excellent reduction ratios and high Agknx multiplication, and they’re often used as speed reducer gearboxes in low to medium-speed applications. However, the efficiency of worm gear reducer gearboxes decreases with increasing ratios.

Sizes

Worm reducer gearboxes come in different sizes and tooth shapes. While the tooth shape of one worm is similar to the other, different worms are designed to carry a different amount of load. For example, a circular arc worm may have a different tooth shape than one with a secondary curve. Worm gears can also be adjusted for backlash. The backlash is the difference between the advancing and receding arc.
There are two sizes of worm reducer gearboxes available from Agknx Transmission. The SW-1 and SW-5 models offer ratios of 3.5:1 to 60:1 and 5:1 to 100:1 respectively. The size of the worm reducer gearbox is determined by the required gear ratio.
Worm gears have different thread counts. One is based on the central cross-section of the worm, and the other is on the right. Worm gears can have either a single or double thread. Single-threaded gears will reduce speed by 50 percent, while double-threaded gears will reduce speed by 25 percent.
Worm gear reducer gearboxes are lightweight and highly reliable. They can accommodate a variety of NEMA input flanges and hollow output bore sizes. Worm reducer gearboxes can be found at 6 regional warehouses, with prepaid freight. To make a purchasing decision, you should consider the horsepower and Agknx requirements of your specific application.
worm reducer

Applications

The Worm reducer gearbox market is a global business that is dominated by the North American and European regions. The report provides in-depth information on the market trends, key challenges, and opportunities. It also examines the current state of the industry and projects future market growth. The report is organized into segments based on product type, major geographical regions, and application. It also presents statistics and key data about the market.
Worm gear reducer gearboxes have many applications. They can be used to increase the speed of convey belts. They also help reduce noise. Worm gears have many teeth that touch the gear mesh, which makes them quieter. Moreover, the worm gears require only a single stage reducer gearbox, reducing the number of moving parts in the system.
The worm gear has long life and is suitable for different industries. It is a perfect choice for elevators and other applications that need fast stopping and braking. Its compact size and ability to hold a load make it suitable for these applications. It also prevents the load from free-falling as a result of a sudden braking. Worm gears can also be used in heavy-duty machinery such as rock crushers.
Worm gears are similar to ordinary gears except that they transfer motion at a 90-degree angle. As a result, the worm gears are extremely quiet, making them a suitable option for noise sensitive applications. They are also excellent for low-voltage applications, where the noise is critical.
Worm gears are ideal for applications with space restrictions, because they require fewer gear sets. The worm gears also allow for a smaller gearbox size. Consequently, they are the perfect choice for machines that are space-constrained, such as conveyors and packaging equipment.

Cost

The lifespan of a worm gear reducer gearbox is comparable to other gear reducer gearboxes. Worm gears have a long history of innovation and use in various industries, from shipbuilding to automobile manufacturing. Today, these gear reducer gearboxes are still popular with engineers. However, there are some things to keep in mind before buying one.
In the first place, a worm reducer gearbox needs to be affordable. Generally, a worm reducer gearbox costs about $120. The price varies with the brand name and features. Some products are more expensive than others, so be sure to shop around for the best price. In addition, it is important to consider the quality and design of the worm reducer gearbox before making a purchase.
Worm gear manufacturers have made significant advancements in materials, design and manufacturing. These advancements, along with the use of advanced lubricants, have resulted in significant increases in efficiency. For example, double enveloping worm gear reducer gearboxes have improved efficiency by three to eight percentage points. This improvement was achieved through rigorous testing of manufacturing processes and materials. With these improvements, worm gear reducer gearboxes have become more desirable in today’s market.
Worm reducer gearboxes are extremely versatile and reliable, and are available in a variety of sizes. Domestic manufacturers usually stock a large selection of reducer gearboxes, and are often able to ship them the same day you place your order. Most major domestic worm gear reducer gearbox manufacturers also share some critical mounting dimensions, such as the output shaft diameter, the mounting hole location, and the overall reducer gearbox housing height. Most manufacturers also offer standardized gear ratios. Some manufacturers have also improved gear design and added synthetic lubricants for better performance.
In addition, different tooth shapes of worms can increase their load carrying capacity. They can be used on secondary curves and circular arc cross sections. Moreover, the pitch point defines the boundary of the cross section. The mesh on the receding arc is smoother than that of the advancing arc. However, in the case of negative shifting, most of the mesh is on the receding arc.
worm reducer

Self-locking function

A worm reducer gearbox has a self-locking function. When a worm is fitted with all of its addendum teeth, the total number of teeth in the system should be greater than 40. This self-locking function is achieved through the worm’s rack and pinion mechanism. The worm’s self-locking feature can prevent the load from being dropped and is useful for many applications.
The self-locking function of a worm reducer gearbox is possible for two main reasons. First of all, a worm reducer gearbox uses two or more gears. One gear is placed at the input, and the other gear runs the output shaft. This mechanism produces a torque, which is transmitted to a spur gear.
Worm reducer gearboxes can be used in a variety of industrial applications. Because of their self-locking function, they are useful for preventing back-driving. They are also helpful for lifting and holding loads. Their self-locking mechanism allows for a large gear reduction ratio without increasing the size of a gear box.
Self-locking gears can be used to prevent back-driving and inertial driving. This is useful for many industries and can prevent backdriving. However, one major disadvantage of self-locking gears is their sensitivity to operating conditions. Lubrication, vibration, and misalignment can affect their reliability.
Embodiments of the invention provide a self-locking mechanism that prevents back-driving but allows forward-driving. The self-locking mechanism may comprise first and second ratchet cams disposed about a gear member. A releasable coupling member may be interposed between the gear member and the ratchet cam. This facilitates selective coupling and decoupling.
The worm reducer gearbox has several advantages. Its compact design is ideal for many mechanical transmission systems. It also provides greater load capacity than a cross-axis helical gear mechanism.

China best Chinese Manufacturer Hot Sale Helical Gear Box for Industrial Usage   worm gearbox backlashChina best Chinese Manufacturer Hot Sale Helical Gear Box for Industrial Usage   worm gearbox backlash
editor by CX 2023-06-09

China Worm Reducer Gearbox Gear Box Wheel High Quality Speed Reduction Jack Best Steering High Quality Good Price Gear Manufacturer Industrial Worm Reducer Gearbox wholesaler

Solution Description

 Worm Reducer Gearbox Gear Box Wheel High High quality Velocity Reduction Jack Very best Steering Substantial High quality Excellent Price Equipment Producer Industrial Worm Reducer Gearbox

How does a worm gear perform?
How Worm Gears Operate. An electric motor or motor applies rotational power through to the worm. The worm rotates from the wheel, and the screw confront pushes on the tooth of the wheel. The wheel is pushed from the load.

Can a worm gear go both instructions?
Worm drives can go possibly route, but they want to be designed for it. As you can picture, turning the worm shaft below load will create a thrust alongside the axis of the screw. Nonetheless, if you reverse the direction the route of thrust will reverse as effectively.

The simple structure of the worm equipment reducer is mostly composed of the worm gear, the shaft, the bearing, the box physique and its equipment. Can be divided into 3 standard structural components: box, worm gear, bearing and shaft combination. The box is the foundation of all the equipment in the worm gear reducer. It is an essential element that supports the fixed shaft components, assures the right relative position of the transmission elements and supports the load performing on the reducer. The principal operate of the worm equipment is to transmit the movement and power among the 2 staggered shafts.
 

 

US $10-99
/ Piece
|
100 Pieces

(Min. Order)

###

Application: Motor, Electric Cars, Motorcycle, Machinery, Marine, Toy, Agricultural Machinery, Car
Hardness: Soft Tooth Surface
Installation: 90 Degree
Layout: Coaxial
Gear Shape: Conical – Cylindrical Gear
Step: Stepless

###

Samples:
US$ 9999/Piece
1 Piece(Min.Order)

|
Request Sample

US $10-99
/ Piece
|
100 Pieces

(Min. Order)

###

Application: Motor, Electric Cars, Motorcycle, Machinery, Marine, Toy, Agricultural Machinery, Car
Hardness: Soft Tooth Surface
Installation: 90 Degree
Layout: Coaxial
Gear Shape: Conical – Cylindrical Gear
Step: Stepless

###

Samples:
US$ 9999/Piece
1 Piece(Min.Order)

|
Request Sample

Worm reducer gearbox

Worm reducer gearboxes are commonly used to reduce the Agknx produced by a rotating shaft. They can achieve reduction ratios of five to sixty. In contrast, a single-stage hypoid gear can achieve up to a 120:1 reduction ratio. For further reduction, another type of gearing is used. So, a single stage worm reducer gearbox cannot achieve higher ratios than these.<brworm reducer

Mechanics

A worm reducer gearbox is an auxiliary mechanical device that uses worms to reduce the size of a rotating shaft. These worms have a range of tooth forms. One form is a line weave twist surface. Another is a trapezoid based on a central cross section. The trapezoid can be perpendicular to the tooth cross section, or it can be normal to the root cross section. Other forms include involute helicoids and convolute worms, which use a straight line intersecting the involute generating line.
Worm gears are lubricated with a special lubricant. Because worm gears are complex, it’s important to use the correct lubricant. Worm gear manufacturers provide approved lubricants for their gears. Using unapproved gear oil can damage your reducer gearbox’s efficiency. The right lubricant depends on several factors, including load, speed, duty cycle, and expected operating temperatures.
The efficiency of a worm gear reducer gearbox depends on several factors, including losses at gear mesh, losses in the bearings, and windage in the oil seal lip. In addition, the worm gear reducer gearbox’s efficiency varies with ambient temperature and operating temperature. The worm gear reducer gearbox’s efficiency can also vary with the ratio of the load. Moreover, worm gear reducer gearboxes are subject to break-in.
Worm gear reducer gearboxes are used in many different applications. They are typically used in small electric motors, but they’re also used in conveyor systems, presses, elevators, and mining applications. Worm gears are also commonly found in stringed musical instruments.
Worm gears have excellent reduction ratios and high Agknx multiplication, and they’re often used as speed reducer gearboxes in low to medium-speed applications. However, the efficiency of worm gear reducer gearboxes decreases with increasing ratios.

Sizes

Worm reducer gearboxes come in different sizes and tooth shapes. While the tooth shape of one worm is similar to the other, different worms are designed to carry a different amount of load. For example, a circular arc worm may have a different tooth shape than one with a secondary curve. Worm gears can also be adjusted for backlash. The backlash is the difference between the advancing and receding arc.
There are two sizes of worm reducer gearboxes available from Agknx Transmission. The SW-1 and SW-5 models offer ratios of 3.5:1 to 60:1 and 5:1 to 100:1 respectively. The size of the worm reducer gearbox is determined by the required gear ratio.
Worm gears have different thread counts. One is based on the central cross-section of the worm, and the other is on the right. Worm gears can have either a single or double thread. Single-threaded gears will reduce speed by 50 percent, while double-threaded gears will reduce speed by 25 percent.
Worm gear reducer gearboxes are lightweight and highly reliable. They can accommodate a variety of NEMA input flanges and hollow output bore sizes. Worm reducer gearboxes can be found at 6 regional warehouses, with prepaid freight. To make a purchasing decision, you should consider the horsepower and Agknx requirements of your specific application.
worm reducer

Applications

The Worm reducer gearbox market is a global business that is dominated by the North American and European regions. The report provides in-depth information on the market trends, key challenges, and opportunities. It also examines the current state of the industry and projects future market growth. The report is organized into segments based on product type, major geographical regions, and application. It also presents statistics and key data about the market.
Worm gear reducer gearboxes have many applications. They can be used to increase the speed of convey belts. They also help reduce noise. Worm gears have many teeth that touch the gear mesh, which makes them quieter. Moreover, the worm gears require only a single stage reducer gearbox, reducing the number of moving parts in the system.
The worm gear has long life and is suitable for different industries. It is a perfect choice for elevators and other applications that need fast stopping and braking. Its compact size and ability to hold a load make it suitable for these applications. It also prevents the load from free-falling as a result of a sudden braking. Worm gears can also be used in heavy-duty machinery such as rock crushers.
Worm gears are similar to ordinary gears except that they transfer motion at a 90-degree angle. As a result, the worm gears are extremely quiet, making them a suitable option for noise sensitive applications. They are also excellent for low-voltage applications, where the noise is critical.
Worm gears are ideal for applications with space restrictions, because they require fewer gear sets. The worm gears also allow for a smaller gearbox size. Consequently, they are the perfect choice for machines that are space-constrained, such as conveyors and packaging equipment.

Cost

The lifespan of a worm gear reducer gearbox is comparable to other gear reducer gearboxes. Worm gears have a long history of innovation and use in various industries, from shipbuilding to automobile manufacturing. Today, these gear reducer gearboxes are still popular with engineers. However, there are some things to keep in mind before buying one.
In the first place, a worm reducer gearbox needs to be affordable. Generally, a worm reducer gearbox costs about $120. The price varies with the brand name and features. Some products are more expensive than others, so be sure to shop around for the best price. In addition, it is important to consider the quality and design of the worm reducer gearbox before making a purchase.
Worm gear manufacturers have made significant advancements in materials, design and manufacturing. These advancements, along with the use of advanced lubricants, have resulted in significant increases in efficiency. For example, double enveloping worm gear reducer gearboxes have improved efficiency by three to eight percentage points. This improvement was achieved through rigorous testing of manufacturing processes and materials. With these improvements, worm gear reducer gearboxes have become more desirable in today’s market.
Worm reducer gearboxes are extremely versatile and reliable, and are available in a variety of sizes. Domestic manufacturers usually stock a large selection of reducer gearboxes, and are often able to ship them the same day you place your order. Most major domestic worm gear reducer gearbox manufacturers also share some critical mounting dimensions, such as the output shaft diameter, the mounting hole location, and the overall reducer gearbox housing height. Most manufacturers also offer standardized gear ratios. Some manufacturers have also improved gear design and added synthetic lubricants for better performance.
In addition, different tooth shapes of worms can increase their load carrying capacity. They can be used on secondary curves and circular arc cross sections. Moreover, the pitch point defines the boundary of the cross section. The mesh on the receding arc is smoother than that of the advancing arc. However, in the case of negative shifting, most of the mesh is on the receding arc.
worm reducer

Self-locking function

A worm reducer gearbox has a self-locking function. When a worm is fitted with all of its addendum teeth, the total number of teeth in the system should be greater than 40. This self-locking function is achieved through the worm’s rack and pinion mechanism. The worm’s self-locking feature can prevent the load from being dropped and is useful for many applications.
The self-locking function of a worm reducer gearbox is possible for two main reasons. First of all, a worm reducer gearbox uses two or more gears. One gear is placed at the input, and the other gear runs the output shaft. This mechanism produces a torque, which is transmitted to a spur gear.
Worm reducer gearboxes can be used in a variety of industrial applications. Because of their self-locking function, they are useful for preventing back-driving. They are also helpful for lifting and holding loads. Their self-locking mechanism allows for a large gear reduction ratio without increasing the size of a gear box.
Self-locking gears can be used to prevent back-driving and inertial driving. This is useful for many industries and can prevent backdriving. However, one major disadvantage of self-locking gears is their sensitivity to operating conditions. Lubrication, vibration, and misalignment can affect their reliability.
Embodiments of the invention provide a self-locking mechanism that prevents back-driving but allows forward-driving. The self-locking mechanism may comprise first and second ratchet cams disposed about a gear member. A releasable coupling member may be interposed between the gear member and the ratchet cam. This facilitates selective coupling and decoupling.
The worm reducer gearbox has several advantages. Its compact design is ideal for many mechanical transmission systems. It also provides greater load capacity than a cross-axis helical gear mechanism.

China Worm Reducer Gearbox Gear Box Wheel High Quality Speed Reduction Jack Best Steering High Quality Good Price Gear Manufacturer Industrial Worm Reducer Gearbox     wholesaler China Worm Reducer Gearbox Gear Box Wheel High Quality Speed Reduction Jack Best Steering High Quality Good Price Gear Manufacturer Industrial Worm Reducer Gearbox     wholesaler
editor by czh 2023-02-04